Saturday, February 26, 2011


Richard Bandler (1950- ) is an American author and trainer in the fields of alternative psychology and of self-help. He is best known as the co-inventor (with John Grinder) of Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), a collection of concepts and techniques intended to understand and change human behavior-patterns[1]. He also developed other systems known as Design Human Engineering (DHE) and Neuro Hypnotic Repatterning (NHR).

John Grinder Ph.D. (1940 - ) is an American linguist, author, management consultant, trainer and speaker. A graduate of the University of San Francisco with a degree in psychology from the early 1960s he returned to college in the late 60’s, after a stint in the military, to study linguistics and received his Ph.D. from the University of California, San Diego in 1971. His dissertation, titled “On Deletion Phenomena in English”, was published by Mouton in 1976.

In the early 1970s, Grinder worked in George A. Miller's laboratory at Rockefeller University. After receiving his Ph.D., Grinder took a full-time position as an assistant professor in the linguistics faculty at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC). He engaged in undergraduate and graduate teaching, and research. His research focused on Noam Chomsky's theories of transformational grammar specializing in syntax and deletion phenomena. He published several research papers with Paul Postal on the syntactical structures relating to "missing antecedents" or missing parasitic gaps for the pronoun. They argued that the syntactic structure of a deleted verb phrase (VP) is complete. Postal and Grinde's doctoral adviser at UCSC, Edward Klima, [2] was involved in the early development of generative semantics.

Grinder co-authored, with Suzette Elgin, a linguistics text book titled “A Guide to Transformational Grammar: History, Theory, Practice”.

In 1972 (during Grinder's stint at UCSC) Bandler, an undergraduate student of psychology, approached him for assistance in modeling Gestalt therapy. Bandler had spent much time recording and editing recordings of Fritz Perls (founder of Gestalt therapy) and had learned Gestalt therapy implicitly. John Grinder, then a professor at the University, told Bandler that he could explain almost all of the questions and comments Bandler made using transformational grammar, the topic in linguistics that Grinder specialized in.

Starting with Fritz Perls, followed by a leading figure in family therapy Virginia Satir, and later the leading figure in hypnosis in psychiatry Milton Erickson, Grinder and Bandler modeled the various cognitive behavioral patterns of these therapists. This work formed the basis of the methodology that became the foundation of neuro-linguistic programming[1]. They developed a model for therapy and called it the meta-model.[3]

They cited Noam Chomsky's transformational syntax, which was John Grinder's linguistics specialization, and ideas about human modeling from the work of Alfred Korzybski as being influential in their thinking. Of particular interest was Korzybski's critique of cause-effect rationale and his notion that "the map is not the territory" which also featured in Gregory Bateson[4]'s writing.
"Modeling" in NLP is the process of adopting the behaviors, language, strategies and beliefs of another in order to build a “model” of what they do. The “model” is then reduced to a pattern that can be taught to others.

[1] "Neuro-Linguistic Programming" denotes the belief in a connection between neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioral patterns that have been learned through experience ("programming") and can be organized to achieve specific goals in life.
Basically, it takes the way in which somebody learns something and gives it to somebody else

[2] Edward S. Klima (1931–2008) was an eminent linguist who specialized in the study of sign languages. Klima's work was heavily influenced by Noam Chomsky's then-revolutionary theory of the biological basis of linguistics, and applied that analysis to sign languages.
[3] The meta-model is a practical communications model used to specify information in a speaker's language. The meta model consists of categories of questions or heuristics which seek to challenge linguistic distortion, clarify generalization and recover deleted information which occurs in a speaker's language.
Typically, questions may be in the form of "What X, specifically?", "How specifically?", "According to whom?" and "How do you know that?".

[4] Gregory Bateson (1904 –1980) was a British anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields.

Leslie LeBeau (formerly Leslie Cameron-Bandler) is an author and the co-developer of Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). She was a part of the Grinder/Bandler research group.

Judith DeLozier is a trainer and author in Neuro-linguistic programming. Her interests are in culture, anthropology and Gregory Bateson's epistemology. A member of John Grinder and Richard Bandler's original group of students, she continues to contribute extensively to the development of NLP models and processes.

Robert Dilts has been a developer, author, trainer and consultant in the field of Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP).

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