Sunday, May 29, 2011

hypnosis is not sleep, …

Clark Leonard Hull (1884 - 1952) was an influential American psychologist who sought to explain learning and motivation by scientific laws of behavior.
Hull conducted research demonstrating that his theories could predict and control behavior. His most significant works were the Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning (1940), and Principles of Behavior (1943), which established his analysis of animal learning and conditioning as the dominant learning theory of its time. Hull is known for his debates with Edward C. Tolman.
He is also known for his work in Drive Theory. Hull’s model is couched in biological terms: Organisms suffer deprivation. Deprivation creates needs. Needs activate drives. Drives activate behavior. Behavior is goal directed. Achieving the goal has survival value. {It took 14 years to discover some of his theories in these areas were wrong.}

In experimental psychologist, his work Hypnosis and Suggestibility (1933) was a rigorous study of the phenomenon, using statistical and experimental analysis. Hull's studies emphatically demonstrated once and for all that hypnosis had no connection with sleep ("hypnosis is not sleep, … it has no special relationship to sleep, and the whole concept of sleep when applied to hypnosis obscures the situation").

The main result of Hull's study was to rein in the extravagant claims of hypnotists, especially regarding extraordinary improvements in cognition or the senses under hypnosis. Hull's experiments showed the reality of some classical phenomena such as mentally induced pain reduction and apparent inhibition of memory recall. However, Clark's work made clear that these effects could be achieved without hypnosis being seen as a distinct state, but rather as a result of suggestion and motivation, which was a forerunner of the behavioural approach to hypnosis. Similarly, moderate increases in certain physical capacities and changes to the threshold of sensory stimulation could be induced psychologically; attenuation effects could be especially dramatic.

Sunday, May 8, 2011

Marquis de Puységur founder of "artificial somnambulism"

Amand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis de Puységur (1751–1825), was a French aristocrat from one of the most illustrious families of the French nobility, he is now remembered as one of the pre-scientific founders of hypnotism (then known Mesmerism).

The Marquis de Puységur learned about Mesmerism from his brother Antoine-Hyacinthe, the Count of Chastenet. One of his first and most important patients was Victor Race, a 23-year-old peasant in the employ of the Puységur family. Race was easily hypnotized by Puységur, but displayed a strange form of sleeping trance not before seen in the early history of Mesmerism. Puységur noted the similarity between this sleeping trance and natural sleep-walking or somnambulism, and he named it "artificial somnambulism". Today we know this state by the name "hypnosis", a term first coined by James Braid in 1842.

Puységur rapidly became a highly successful hypnotherapist, to whom people came from all over France. In 1785, Puységur taught a course in animal magnetism to the local Masonic society, which he concluded with these words:

I believe in the existence within myself of a power.
From this belief derives my will to exert it.
The entire doctrine of Animal Magnetism is contained in the two words: Believe and Want.
I believe that I have the power to set into action the vital principle of my fellow-men;
I want to make use of it; this is all my science and all my means.
Believe and want, Sirs, and you will do as much as I.

Marquis de Puységur

Puységur's institute for training in hypnotherapy, Société Harmonique des Amis Réunis, grew rapidly until the Revolution in 1789. During the revolutionary era the institute was disbanded and Puységur spent two years in jail. After the Napoleons' overthrow the new generation of practitioners of hypnotism looked to Puységur as their patriarch, and came to accept his method of inducing a sleeping trance in preference to the original methods of Mesmer. Puységur, however, always portrayed himself as a faithful disciple of Mesmer, and never took credit for having invented the procedure that is now known as hypnotic induction. Charles Richet rediscovered his writings in 1884, and showed that most of what other people had claimed as their discoveries in the field of hypnotherapy were originally due to the Marquis de Puységur.

Wednesday, May 4, 2011


Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavioral therapies or CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach, a talking therapy, that aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. The title is used in diverse ways to designate behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to refer to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive research. [...] Read more:

Cognitive therapy (CT)
is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck. CT is one of the therapeutic approaches within the larger group of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) and was first expounded by Beck in the 1960s. More:

Aaron Temkin Beck, M.D. is the father of Cognitive Therapy, having created and refined cognitive therapy over the course of his research and clinical career. He has published more than 550 scholarly articles and 18 books and has developed widely-used assessment scales. [...] Read more:

Cognitive therapy seeks to help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. This involves helping patients develop skills for modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors. [...] Read more:

List of cognitive–behavioral therapies :

Sunday, May 1, 2011

Core Transformation

Core Transformation meets the deepest strivings of our times: to heal ourselves and develop as human beings – emotionally, physically, and spiritually. This simple 10-step process offers a graceful way to change unwanted thoughts, feelings, and habits, and achieve goals you thought unattainable.

Specific changes attributed to the Core Transformation process include:
 Changing problem emotions and behaviors (i.e. anger, self-consciousness, procrastination, fear)
 Losing weight

 Improving relationships
 Overcoming depression and anxiety
 Healing addictions
 Finding fulfilling work
 Improving all aspects of health

 Creating an overall sense of inner peace, wholeness, and well-being




Connirae Andreas, Ph.D. is the mother of three, and has been a leader and innovator in the field of NLP for three decades. She is well known for her groundbreaking work developing Core Transformation, and her contributions to the field in areas including Advanced Language Patterns, Timelines, Grief Resolution, and Shame.

She has co-authored or edited nine books and manuals of international acclaim, including "
Core Transformation" (with Tamara Andreas), and
"Heart of the Mind"
[ ]
(with husband
Steve Andreas[ ]).

"THE CORE TRANSFORMATION STORY: How the process came to be" Acknowledgements and History...